Category Archives: ELECTRICITY

Chapter 3 Lead Acid Battery: The Construction

Batteries Power Storage Units (PSU)

Chapter 3

NOTE: When dismantling any battery, there is a level of toxicity and exposure to acid. NEVER open up a battery and remove the electrolyte. There are many types of flooded batteries that use toxic metals. SurvivorDuty will only demonstrate the less harmful simple flooded lead acid and nickel iron batteries. This website is dedicated to inform the reader concerning reconditioning in a time of crises but the reader should NEVER attempt what is demonstrated here for batteries are cheap and available to replace as new then to dismantle an aged battery that will offer no benefit to the user.

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POWER STORAGE Units (PSU’s) Lead Acid Battery Restoration CASE 1 & 2

NOTE:

When dismantling any battery, there is a level of toxicity and exposure to acid. NEVER open up a battery and remove the electrolyte. There are many types of flooded batteries that use toxic metals. SurvivorDuty will only demonstrate the less harmful simple flooded lead acid and nickel iron batteries. This website is dedicated to inform the reader concerning reconditioning in a time of crises but the reader should NEVER attempt what is demonstrated here for batteries are cheap and available to replace as new then to dismantle an aged battery that will offer no benefit.

Continue reading POWER STORAGE Units (PSU’s) Lead Acid Battery Restoration CASE 1 & 2

Batteries Power Storage Units (PSU) Chapter 1 The Edison

We all know the drill of capitalism, repeat business pays the bills and keeps everyone employed. If every manufactured sold a product that never failed, once the market was saturated with that product, the company would fail unless they came up with an upgrade version, a 2.0 so to say. The U.S. automobile manufactures, back in the 1970’s, took the concept to automobiles. The cars broke down, smoked and raddled their way to the junk yard in a few short years. Then came the Japanese automobile manufactures, producing high quality engines, well built frames and smooth riding suspensions. The people loved it and the U.S. auto sales dropped off the charts. Why? Most of us want quality, not junk. The trick to the Japanese automotive industry was to produce long lasting engines and high quality chassis yet have the interiors fall apart in 5 years and keep changing the designs to look modern and new to drive the resale of their product… and this worked!!! So why bring this up when this post concerns batteries? Simple.

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Manually Balancing Ultracapacitors

In my post “Resisters and Diode To Balance” is the hardwire attempt to “auto” balance a set of ultracapacitors (CAPs). In reality, I don’t even need an electronic balancer, just common sense. Each CAP has its own internal capacitance. Due to age, loading, heat stress, etc. each cell varies. When I rack a set of say, seven together, the CAP with the lowest capacitance would be subjected to higher voltages by the mating CAPs in the set. The rated over voltage for a CAP can also change with age and stress. I always over size my CAPs to the total applied voltage. If each CAP is rated at say 2.7 volts, and I will need a starting storage voltage at say 18 volts, then I will use (8) CAPs that has the total capacitance of about 22 volts. If my CAPs are aged, I may use (9), totaling 24 volts. This “2.7” volts is theoretical when the CAP were newly manufactured, hence I mix and match actual capacitance.

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Resisters AND Diodes to Balance

As a survivalist, I do not use integrated circuits. I do have to use semiconductors for solar charging and balancing ultracapacitors, “CAPs”. My diode of choice is the heavy duty, high amp and high heat Schottky diode. In this post, I am addressing two concepts to hardwire a balancing circuit for a CAP bank.

For my M1 power bank, I will use LED’s, yet will still have on hand analog volt meters as a primary measurement tool. LED’s are nice to have a quick reference to any problems with my charging unit. The brighter the LED on my CAP bank means that an ultracapacitor is about to fail (too much voltage). On my Fe/Ni bank, a weak LED light indicates a cell is not charging either by a low water level or a short in one of its cells.

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